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Dissertation Chapter about Science Education

INTRODUCATION

Science education in secondary school education system plays an important role. Science education is a base for the progress of a country. It grows the advantages, human beings efficiency and build professional force equipped with the economic development of a community. The progress and fall of a society can be directly associated with the development and deterioration of science education. In current situation science education has changed the whole world. Science education is taking part in every filed whether belongs to defense of a nation, industrial development, quality of products and agriculture. The educating and teaching process in science education converts the concepts into practical. The scienc educational quality ought to be evaluated by showing technique, extremely qualified staff and individuals arranged admiration style.

As indicated by Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2005) quality a level of anything whenever contrasted with different items it represents the positive and negative aspects of anything. So as to assess that how positive or negative something. Apart from this an unmatchable property and qualities controlled by lifeless thing. It means a one of a kind character as for wellness and fineness.

The entire science education system depends on the secondary science education. Science education gives the main power for the progress of the country as well as education system depend on the quality of basic science education. Along these lines, the education system must be renovated so the young girls and boys must be ready for advance education. In this way they can adopt their profession according to their abilities and skills and take benefit from education.

Educational quality works as a tool for personality development. There are two prominent types of schools available in the city of Rawalakot Poonch: private and public sector schools. Public schools finalized by state governments or district level bodies. Private schools administrated by welfare organizations / corporations. In these days private schools are attracting much attention as well as attraction of both parents and potential students. Private schools race ahead in fields of examination, assessment as well as comprehension and creative work. Public schools, though correspondingly much cheaper, are failing to increase and maintain their student strength. Guardians just want to send their kids in private schools and stay away from government funded schools. The thinking of the parents was that public schools lack basic teaching facilities, including a competent faculty. They feel as if sending their kids in these schools will provide threat for the future of their children. This thinking was now deep rooted in different socio economic sections of the society, which has resulted in the rapid decline of public schools today.

According to Iqbal (2006) teachers teaching in private and English medium schools employ different teaching methods. They have sufficient teaching aids. They have small class sizes, art exhibits, science fairs, and conduct games, competitions among students, quizzes, essay writing and indoor and out activities as well as trips for students.

The study of Liaqat (2009) observed that, exceptionally highly qualified staff was available in public sector schools. Moreover, lot of facilities in government schools such as physical facilities, educational facilities, and recreational facilities are given by the authority. Meanwhile the people who are running the private sector schools are not able to supply such type of facilities and infrastructure of that level. Still it was amazing that private sector show high return when compare to the government schools. The reason behind was private sector schools utilize different teaching aids, excellent supervision in teaching and administration.

In order to determine this conclusion the quality of science education in private schools needs to be assessed then compared with the education quality of government schools of Rawalakot. It will make clear the quality of science education between the two systems and paint a true picture of the current situation. Secondly, the public school systems must be identified these issues that cause the decline of science education in district Poonch. They may include the fact that there are many old age teachers who cannot properly teach science or computer subjects. This is the reason that the basic approach to teaching these hands-on subjects remains theoretical or rote-based. Once these issues have been identified, specific and practical recommendations can be construct to upgrade the educational quality in government school systems and bring them to the equal level or better as compare to the educational quality of private school systems.

1.1 Statement of the problem

The focus of the research on recognize the issues in science education of public sector schools in district Poonch. The research study also focus on the area as private sector schools science education is good and provide very good base for science education at higher classes as the public sectors schools science education is not according to expectations and inspirations of people of district Poonch. The study suggest possible solutions to overcome these differentiation level between two types of schools. The areas that create differentiation level between two types of schools are practical work in labs, science teacher’s trainings, science teaching methods, conduction of science fairs, infrastructure and physical facilities and discussion in science class. So the problem statement is “A comparative study of quality of science education in public and private secondary schools”.

1.2 Objectives of the study

Objective of the study were to:

  • Compare science educational quality in district Poonch with following parameters
  • Teachers qualification with respect to academics
  • Teachers qualification with respect to profession
  • Teacher’s Experience
  • Results of the students
  • Selection Procedure of Science Teachers
  • Practical work is done by science teachers regularly
  • Science Laboratory for Students
  • Teachers Training in Science Education
  • Satisfaction of Students on Science Teaching Methods
  • School arranges Science Fairs / Science Projects.
  • Infrastructure and physical facilities for science education
  • Educational Facilities in science education
  • Recreational Facilities in science education
  • Supporting Discussion in Science Class
  • Educational Officers visits schools to evaluate student’s performance and solve the administrative problems

1.3 Significance of the study

The research study may be helpful to measure the performance gap between public and private schools. The study could be useful to better the science educational quality in government sector schools.

1.4 Hypothesis

H1: There was significant difference among public and privates school teachers on qualifications
with respect to academics
H0: There was no significant difference among public and private school teachers on
qualifications with respect to academics.
H2: There was significant difference among public and privates school teachers on qualifications
with respect to profession
H0: There was no significant difference among public and privates school teachers on
qualifications with respect to profession.
H3: There was significant difference among public and privates school on teacher’s experience.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and privates school on teacher’s
experience.
H4: There was significant difference among public and privates schools on result of students.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and privates school on result of students.
H5: There was significant difference among public and private school on the selection
procedure of science teachers.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and private schools on the selection
procedure of science teachers.
H6: There was significant difference among public and private school on practical work was
done by science teachers during class.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and private schools on practical work was
done by science teachers during class.
H7: There was significant difference among public and private schools science laboratory for
students.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and private schools on science laboratory
for students.
H8: There was significant difference among public and private schools on teacher’s training in
science education.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and private schools on teacher’s training
in science education.
H9: There was significant difference among public and privates schools on satisfaction
of students on science teaching methods.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and privates schools on satisfaction of
students on science teaching methods.
H10: There was significant difference among public and privates schools on school arranges
science fairs / science projects.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and privates schools on school arranges
science fairs / science projects.
H11: There was significant difference among public and privates schools on infrastructure and
physical facilities for science education.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and privates school on infrastructure and
physical facilities for science education.
.H12: There was significant difference among public and privates schools on educational
facilities on science education.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and privates school on educational
facilities in science education.
.H13: There was significant difference among public and privates schools on recreational
facilities in science education.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and privates schools on recreational
facilities in science education.
H14: There was significant difference among public and privates schools on supporting
discussion in science class.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and privates schools on supporting
discussion in science class.
H15: There was significant difference among public and privates schools on Educational Officers
visits schools to evaluate student’s performance and solve the administrative.
H0: There was no significant difference among public and private school on Educational Officers
visits schools to evaluate student’s performance and solve the administrative.

1.5 Methodology of the study

1.5.1 Research Design

It was very important to know the vision of both students and teacher to compare the quality of science education both in public and private sector school system. This study was descriptive in nature. This was descriptive type survey research which involves the comparison of quality of science educational quality at secondary education (9th – 10th) level in District Poonch Rawalakot city.

1.5.2 Population

Following was the population of the study
There were 56 public secondary schools and 63 private secondary schools, 800 teachers from public sector schools and 850 from private sector schools, 1600 students from public sector and 3100 from private sector schools. They all were included in the population.

1.5.3 Sample

  1. Random sampling technique was used for selection of sample.
  2. Teachers and girls students of Grade 9th and 10th in school included in sample.( 10 schools, 100 teachers and 300 students )
  3. Five from government sector and five from private sectors schools are included in sample.( 50 teachers and 150 students from private schools and 50 teachers and 150 students from government Schools)

1.6 Delimitation of the study

The study was delimited to the following:

  1. Only Female students from government and private sector were included in the research.
  2. The investigation was bounded to the secondary classes (9th and 10th).
  3. There were many schools in District Poonch Rawalakot, the research was conducted to the following 10 school.

1) GGHS Tarnooty (Government Girls High School Tarnooty)
2) GGHS Pothi Makwalan (Government Girls High School Pothi Makwalan)
3) GGHS Khrick (Government Girls High School Krick)
4) GGHS No 1 (Government Girls High School NO 1)
5) GGHS No 2 (Government Girls High School NO 2)
6) Fatima Girls Pubic School (Private)
7) The Educators Pubic School (Private)
8) Flying Angels Pubic School (Private)
9) Pearl Valley Public School (Private)
10) Islamia Model Public School (Private)

1.7 Data collection and Data Analysis

The data was gathered through schools visits and check list was given the students and teachers of the particular schools that was filled by instructors and students. The data was gathered through checklist and interpreted through percentage. The data was analyzed on the bases of chi-square test and see the significant difference between particular schools and further formalize with the support of relevant statistical calculations. On the basis of research, recommendation were developed and farther strategy was design.

1.8 Validation and Reliability

Tool was validated by supervisor and three experts from AIOU. One was the senior teacher. The subsections were modified according to the suggestions of the experts. Reliability is connected with the correct methods that were used for data collection. The overall problem of the research was described accurately. The applicable and well-founded resources were used to gather data and represent logically. The validity and reliability approach for the collection of data, analysis of data and tools research by using pilot testing. The validity of data is more reliable by the utilization of inferential statistics.

1.9 Development of Tool

Since the research was descriptive in nature, checklist was viewed as suitable to gather the data. For the purpose, a fifteen item checklist was developed containing the different options like Yes/No / Agree, Disagree, Undecided, Disagree and Strongly Disagree.

1.10 Administration of Research Tool

In this study, Researcher collected data through the teachers and students of ten different schools of district Poonch AJ.